Software development is a critical process that needs certain checkpoints at designated points. Despite all the careful calculations and checkpoints, sometimes defects and errors can occur during the developmental phases. Hence, software testing is necessary to rule out the possibility of these mistakes. Before the testing process starts, the tester prepares a test plan document to describe a detailed and systematic approach that tests the software applications.
The testing process is of two types – Manual Testing and Automated Testing. This article will mainly resonate with the process and advantages of Manual Testing. Since manual testing involves different test cases covering almost all software applications, it is a time-consuming test. The reports of these tests give out the difference between the actual and the expected results – mainly known as Defects. The developer then fixes these defects, followed by the tester retesting to ensure that the shortcomings have been overcome.
What is Manual Testing?
Manual testing is a process testing the software for the identification of any bugs and defects in the software or the product. It does so mainly intending to provide a high quality unimpaired and intact software or application.
In Manual Testing, the tester plays a significant role and execute the test cases manually, without employing any of the automation tools.
Manual Testing Systematic Procedure
Our QA Experts at Two Runs explain that the manual testing procedure includes the following steps.
Testing Scope Analysis:
Analyzing the testing requirement – be it manual or automated- is the first step towards successful and robust test results. You should identify the test conditions, test bases, requirements, design, infrastructure, and interfaces. It also includes designing tests and testing frameworks.
Creation of Test Plan
Test Plan creation is producing a document describing the test objectives and approaches. It also involves reviewing and identifying test conditions after analyzing the test items, written test cases, and designed test environments. The test plan must include the completion protocols and exit criteria to figure out the stage where testing completes.
Creation of Test Case
It means creating certain specified test conditions and used to compare the results of the application under testing. Hence, it is a standard against which the software or product is tested for its functionality and authenticity.
Execution of Tests
Execution or Implementation of tests is merely running the tests on a computer system manually. For this purpose, different test suites containing a collection of test cases are built. Re-execution of tests is ensured to make the fixing in case of any previously failed tests. In this step, the tester compares the actual results with the desired results and generates a report.
It is a process that finds defects in the application or product under testing. It records feedback from the clients and users and ensures the fixation of defects before making new versions.
Fixation and Verification
After fixing the bug from the developer’s side, the product goes to the testing team. The testing team is responsible for retesting the changed code and making sure that the defect is fixed.
Stages of the Manual Testing
Software Testing is a complete process even after the development and the initial testing. The product or application first goes to the developers who test each unit of it. These units are then integrated, and the system is put together. Then the system testing procedures try the system and make sure it’s proper and required functioning. Now, the software finally goes to the users who perform User Acceptance Testing. The results of all these tests determine whether the product or application is approved or rejected.
The following stages are involved in Manual Testing Procedures:
Unit is the smallest part of the software that you can perform a test on. Before integration, the system is in small units that are individually tested by “Unit Testing.” It uses the White Box testing method, usually with a programming language.
Unit testing is the responsibility of the developer and the QA team. Therefore, the developer must ensure proper functioning and working of individual units before handing them over to QA.
It involves testing the integrated parts of software such as different units, components, and modules. Integration Testing verifies the functioning, stability, and reliability of the components. It focuses on all those areas which are directly or indirectly affected with integration.
A system is a fully integrated software product, and the testing done on it is referred to as the System Testing. It determines the behaviour and compliance of a product with Software Requirements Specifications (SRS). System Testing is critical and may involve risk of error; therefore, making an appropriate test environment that complies with the production environment can eliminate such risks and give the assured results. Some of the software system testing techniques are functionality testing, performance testing, stress testing, and regression testing, etc.
It would be quite surprising for you to find out that the acceptance and rejection of software products in one way or the other depends upon the users. So, you can imagine how important is the feedback for the software or applications. User Acceptance Testing or UAT is critical because it generates results from real-world situations. Certain UAT Test Plans are created to guide you through the testing procedure efficiently and effectively.
Different Methods of Manual Software Testing
Classifying broadly, we can divide the Manual testing into the following techniques:
Black Box Testing
In black-box testing, the tester has no knowledge about the structure of the application. It interacts and tests the functional and non-functional parts of the application. In the hunt for catching bugs and defects, the black box testing uses different techniques and methods.
White Box Testing
In white-box testing, the tester has knowledge of the code and structure of the application. Therefore, it is referred to as a glass box and transparent box testing. Basically, white box testing is used to execute unit testing. White box techniques include control flow testing, branch testing, data flow testing, path testing, etc. Mostly, the developers employ white box testing.
Grey Box Testing
The grey box is a mix of white and black box testing. Grey box testing is aimed to identify the bugs and defects due to inappropriate structure or use of an application. The testers mostly employ it when they need to deal with a critical issue in software or application.
Types of Manual Software Testing
It is a type of Manual testing used to determine whether the software complies with its objectives without any severe defects. It only verifies the core functionality of the software. It is a prerequisite type of testing which the testers execute before the thorough testing.
Cross Browser Testing
It refers to a testing process that determines that the functionality, design, accessibility, and responsiveness of a website remains the same in different browsers and testing. Its main objective is to ensure a consistent and maximum experience on all browsers.
Finding bugs is another side of the story, whereas acceptance testing is a different case. Acceptance tests are executed once all the issues have been resolved. The purpose of it is to figure out how closely the application meets the user needs and expectations. It is more commonly referred to as User Acceptance Testing or UAT.
Beta testing is a common practice being employed by many developers. It involves launching a soft version of the product to the general public, which uses it and gives their feedback. Mainly beta testing is classified into two types; Closed beta testing where the developer provides access to a limited number of users and an Open beta testing in which anyone can use the unreleased form of the software
It is testing that you can execute during the developmental and the testing phase. It does not involve extensive protocols; therefore, mostly non-testers such as designers, managers, or developers carry out the exploratory testing with minimum guidelines.
Typically, the QA team or the engineers execute the negative testing, and it determines how an application responds or reacts to wrong or invalid input signals.
You can carry out usability testing at any phase of the development cycle. To obtain the relevant results, you should engage genuine users who have not been part of the software or application production. It will allow you to get real-world feedback on how different users feel about your product.
Despite the occurrence of Automated Testing, many software houses or agencies still believe in Manual testing because of its reliability and user-friendliness. Our expert team at Two Runs can guide you to keep a balance between the manual and the automated programs. Specific tasks are best performed with manual testing, whereas some others involve repetitive or calculative tasks that will do better with automated testing.